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  • 3 Mistakes to Avoid When Helping the Hurting | Dave Furman
    No one wants to be like Job’s friends. We have hurting people in our lives, and we want to help them, but how do we manage to not make fools of ourselves? And how can we actually help hurting people without discouraging them even more? Just like Job’s friends, we may think we have the…
  • 4 Burning Questions from the Ending of Job | Bill Kynes
    The book of Job takes us on an exhausting emotional journey. We’re perplexed by the divine gambit in the opening scenes where God allows unspeakable suffering to overwhelm a righteous man. We’re inspired by his humble response, only to be unnerved by his sudden despair. We feel his internal struggle in the long and increasingly…
  • 4 Principles for Raising Up Elders | John Folmar
    Biblically qualified elders are crucial for the health of the church, which is “a pillar and buttress of truth” (1 Tim 3:15). Faithful elders lead to stronger churches and the preservation and advancement of the gospel. But what should a pastor do when he finds a church without elders, or without the right ones? When…
  • 4 Traits to Seek in a Spouse | David Qaoud
    Worried you’re going to make the wrong decision? Cheer up: you will. Everyone marries the wrong person. Everyone is wrong because of sin. But a robust view of total depravity, and a firm understanding of providence, doesn’t mean you should have low standards for who you marry. Seek advice from trusted, godly, married people. Don’t…
  • A 12-week Practical Study Series on the Book of Job | TGC Courses
    The book of Job narrates the agony and faith of a great saint in order to teach us about the way in which the Lord governs his world, and how we can trust him when we suffer. Job was a deeply spiritual man who was greatly blessed for his faith (see Job 1:1–3), but when…
  • A 12-week Practical Study Series on the Book of Philippians | TGC Courses
    Paul had a long history with the Philippian Christians, beginning with the conversion of Lydia’s family, a demon-possessed girl, and the Philippian jailer (Acts 16:14–40). Paul returned to Philippi at least twice, but mutual care and communication between the apostle and the Philippian church seem to have been regular. He prayed frequently for them with…
  • A Biblical View of Marriage | Christopher Ash
    The biblical view of marriage is of a God-given, voluntary, sexual and public social union of one man and one woman, from different families, for the purpose of serving God. Marriage was first instituted by God in the order of creation, given by God as an unchangeable foundation for human life. Marriage exists so that…
  • Biblical Evangelism | Richard Coekin
    Evangelism is proclaiming the Gospel – the good news about Jesus Christ which is God’s power to save all who believe it and turn from sin to follow him. This article explains what ‘Evangelism’ is and explores the enduring Biblical message, motives and methods for its practice in every age and culture. Jesus himself was…
  • Christ as Mediator: The Offices of Christ | Thomas J. Nettles
    As the mediator between God and his people, Jesus Christ fulfills and unifies three offices that are present yet distinct in the Old Testament. Those who hold the office of prophet are those by whom God’s people are given necessary knowledge about God. Jesus Christ came as the perfect prophet because he is the very…
  • Christ in the Old Testament | Stephen M. Coleman
    God’s revelation throughout the Old Testament prefigures, anticipates, and announces beforehand the redemption that he would accomplish in the person and work of his incarnate Son, Jesus Christ. When the apostles read the Old Testament, they saw references to Christ and his kingdom, as it were, on every page. Jesus is the second Adam, the…
  • Contemporary Challenges to Inerrancy | Don Carson
    Virtually every Christian doctrine has had doubt cast upon it by some people, but nothing has been more repeatedly undermined than what God has said, beginning as early as Genesis 3:1. Historically, it has been common to relativize Scripture’s authority by adding other authoritative sources; in recent times, it has been more common to question…
  • Created Body and Soul | Paul Helm
    Human beings are made up of both body and soul. These two parts are distinct but inseparable in our nature state. They will be separated in death, but this is a result of the curse and will not continue indefinitely. The body is not ethically inferior, as some unchristian sources hold it to be, but…
  • Divine Revelation: God Making Himself Known | John M. Frame
    God makes himself known to his creatures because he first knows himself perfectly as a personal, speaking God. Although all people suppress the knowledge of God in their sin, he has clearly communicated about himself to his creatures through the creation and through human’s being made in the image of God. On top of this general revelation,…
  • Divine Simplicity | Matthew Barrett
    God is not made up of parts, nor is he compounded or composite in nature. That means he does not possess attributes, as if his attributes are one thing and his essence another. Rather, his essence is his attributes and his attributes his essence. God is his attributes. That means, all that is in God…
  • Fearfully and Wonderfully Made, Woefully and Tragically Fallen | Steve Cornell
    Evangelicals have a significant stake in the decision-making nature of human beings. Terms like belief and unbelief, obedience and disobedience, are part of a biblical grammar of responsibility. Accountability and culpability are essential concepts in relation to the bad news about sin, the good news of the divine gift of salvation, and the expectation of…
  • Gender and Sexuality | Andrew T. Walker
    Sexuality refers to God’s anthropological design and pattern for the procreative relationship between male and female and to the experience of erotic desire within that design. Gender refers to biological differences in male and female embodiment and the different cultural ways in which the creational distinctions between male and female are manifested. The creational narrative…
  • Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation | Christopher Yuan
    When discussing same-sex sexual behavior and desires, some assert that the Bible has nothing to say about sexual orientation. But Paul’s use of sarx (“flesh” or “sinful nature”) can be a helpful category to better understand and minister to individuals who have an enduring and unchosen predisposition. What is at the root of the confusion…
  • Glorification: The Eternal State of the Redeemed | Gerald Bray
    Understanding the glorification of the Christian begins with understanding the glory of God, the state of incomparable greatness in which God dwells and through which he is perceived by his creatures. As creatures marred by sin, we are separated from this glory in two ways, both by the fact that we are creatures and not…
  • God as Father | Gerald Bray
    In the Old Testament, God is the Father of Israel (and Israel is his son) in the context of God forgiving and redeeming Israel. While the Jews of Jesus’s day were hesitant to call God their Father (and angry at Jesus for doing so), Jesus claimed God as his Father and taught his followers to…
  • How to Think about Persecution When You’re Not Very Persecuted | Erik Raymond
    When we think about persecution it is important to note that there are varying levels of it but one stream: it is about opposition to Christ. When we think about persecution it is important to remember the corporate nature of suffering. As our brothers and sisters suffer, we are to share in this suffering. [Read…
  • Humanity as Male and Female | Claire Smith
    God made humanity in his image as both male and female, which reflects the harmony and relationality of the Trinity, supplies the foundation for the different roles and responsibilities of men and women, was reaffirmed in the life of Jesus Christ, and cannot be reinvented or dissolved by new cultural standards. To be made in…
  • Introduction to Job | TGC Courses
    This introductory course is designed to provide key insights into the book of Job by pulling together a number of key resources: overview videos from The Bible Project, helpful contextual information from The ESV Study Bible, commentary recommendations from The Gospel Coalition, a single sermon that sums up the book from beginning to end by…
  • Introduction to Philippians | TGC Courses
    The chief theme of Philippians is encouragement: Paul wants to encourage the Philippians to live out their lives as citizens of a heavenly colony, as evidenced by a growing commitment to service to God and to one another. The way of life that Paul encourages was manifested uniquely in Jesus Christ; it was also evident…
  • Jesus Christ, the Son of Man | Fred Zaspel
    The designation Son of Man means, for Jesus, both that he is human as we are, a son of Adam, and that he is the coming Messiah, who has been given authority by the Most High and reigns over his kingdom through his weakness, seen most clearly at the cross. While the expression “son of…
  • Jesus Christ: The Last Adam | Brandon D. Crowe
    This essay focuses on the biblical portrait of Adam and his relation to Christ. First, I will consider what the OT says about Adam, including the covenant made with Adam. In the beginning God entered into a covenant with Adam promising him eternal life on the condition of perfect obedience. Adam is therefore best understood…
  • Kingdom and Cross | Jeremy Treat
    God’s kingdom was present in Jesus’ life, proclaimed in his preaching, glimpsed in his miracles/exorcisms, established by his death, inaugurated through the resurrection, is being advanced by the Holy Spirit through the church, and will be consummated in Christ’s return. This essay explores the connection between the theological ideas of “cross” and “kingdom.” The tension…
  • Man as the Image of God | Richard Phillips
    Just as Seth bore the “likeness and image” of his father Adam (Gen. 5:3), God made Adam and Eve to bear his image and likeness. Historical theology has often grounded the image of God in mankind’s superiority over lesser creatures, given man’s higher rationality and spirituality, and especially in human’s capacity to know and worship…
  • Preaching | Colin Smith
    Christian preaching does not merely reference Christ; it offers him. It presses all that Christ is, all that he has done, and all that he will do into the minds, hearts, wills, and consciences of our hearers. This essay answers three important questions about preaching: Is “proclaiming Christ” a biblical definition of preaching? How do…
  • Predators in the Pew: Protecting Against Child Abuse in Your Church | Deepak Reju
    If you pay any attention to the news, you know that sexual offenders show up in churches. Like predators hurting defenseless prey, they do unspeakably horrible things to our children. Much could be prevented, but many churches do not know how to protect their children and how to respond when child sex abuse happens. It…
  • Scripture as Divine Revelation | Matthew Barrett
    Divine revelation, which is a remarkable and gracious gift of God, comes in both general and special ways. General revelation is given to everyone everywhere is broad (though far from empty) in what it says about God. This kind of divine revelation is found in creation and in every person’s conscience. Special revelation, on the…
  • The 5 Movements in Isaiah | Davy Ellison
    Yahweh is called “the Holy One of Israel” on 31 occasions in the Old Testament. Strikingly, 25 of these occur in Isaiah. This title for God is a particular favorite of Isaiah’s. It reminds the reader that this God is utterly unique, distinct from any other. And yet the addition “of Israel” reminds us that…
  • The Apostolic Foundation of the Church | Benjamin Bae
    The apostolic foundation of the church refers to the apostles’ unique role in the overall design of the church: to be the immediate messengers of Jesus to carry out his authority and preach the gospel faithfully. The church is comprised of various parts and components. Scripture states that Jesus is the chief cornerstone (Eph. 2:20; 1Pet.…
  • The Authority and Inerrancy of Scripture | Matthew Barrett
    The doctrine of the authority and inerrancy of Scripture is rooted in the doctrine of God; as God is true and trustworthy, so is his word recorded in the original autographs of Scriptures. This means that all things that the Scriptures assert are wholly true, both in the Old Testament, the Scriptures of Jesus and…
  • The Biblical Covenants | Paul R. Williamson
    The biblical covenants form the unifying thread of God’s saving action through Scripture, beginning explicitly with Noah and reaching fulfilment in the new covenant ratified through the blood of Jesus Christ. While some theologians argue that there are three covenants prior (the covenant of redemption, covenant of works, and covenant of grace), the first explicit…
  • The Bodily Resurrection of Jesus | Benjamin C. F. Shaw
    The claim of Jesus’s bodily resurrection is central to the gospel message. Without his bodily resurrection, Jesus’s claims to divinity would be empty, and the gospel’s claim to be the power of God for salvation would be false. Although many with naturalistic presuppositions have questioned the legitimacy of the claim of resurrection, six facts support…
  • The Deity of Christ | Robert Letham
    Jesus’ deity was expressed indirectly but pervasively in the New Testament. It was indirect since the powerful Old Testament monotheism rendered any claim to deity blasphemous. It was pervasive since the overwhelming evidence for Jesus’ identity with God dominated the thought, belief, and worship of the church from its earliest days after Pentecost. Jesus characteristically…
  • The Doctrine of Humanity | Owen Strachan
    This essay examines humanity through a theological survey of God’s intentions for the crown of his creation. We give special and deserved attention to the early chapters of Genesis, believing that these chapters reveal God’s creational design and establish God’s creational order. This essay treats Adam as a historical person who sinned against God in…
  • The Eternality and Aseity of God | John M. Frame
    God’s aseity means that he is sufficient to himself, independent of anything outside himself. God’s eternality is his aseity with respect to time: Lord of time, existing above and apart from it, but free to enter it to accomplish his purposes. The Bible teaches God’s aseity by saying that he does not need anything beyond…
  • The Forgiveness of Sin | David VanDrunen
    The Christian doctrine of forgiveness is that God has lifted the sentence of condemnation upon Christians for their sins through the death of Christ on their behalf and no longer counts them as guilty. Forgiveness is necessary both because God is just and because all humans are guilty with sin. Rather than simply ignoring the…
  • The Glory of God | Christopher Morgan
    The glory of God is interwoven throughout the biblical story and forms the origin, content, and goal of the entire cosmic narrative. God’s glory is the magnificence, worth, loveliness, and grandeur of his many perfections. God communicates his glory through his creation, image-bearers, providence, and redemptive acts. God’s people respond by glorifying him. God receives…
  • The Humanity of Christ | Luke Stamps
    The humanity of Christ refers to the reality that in his incarnation, the Son of God assumed a complete human nature with all its limitations (but without in any way surrendering his divinity), so that he might serve as humanity’s representative, substitute, and example. In his incarnation, the Son of God assumed a complete human…
  • The Immutability and Impassibility of God | Matthew Barrett
    Immutability and Impassibility are key, historic attributes the church has confessed, attributes that distinguish the infinite and eternal Creator from the finite and temporal creature. Immutability means God does not change in any way; he is unchanging and for that reason perfect in every way. Impassibility, a corollary to immutability, means God does not experience…
  • The Incarnation and Two Natures of Christ | Stephen Wellum
    Incarnation is the term that refers to the supernatural act of the triune God, whereby the eternal, divine Son, from the Father, by the agency of the Spirit, took into union with himself a complete human nature apart from sin. As a result, the Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, now and forevermore exists as one person…
  • The Intercessory Work of Christ | Robert Letham
    The intercession of Christ is efficacious. It is not like our prayers that are often of necessity uncertain and conditional. Rather, Christ blesses his church effectively as the characteristic feature of the time between his ascension and his return. Christ, having ascended to the right hand of the Father, blesses his church by his presence…
  • The Messianic Hope | T. D. Alexander
    At the heart of the Old Testament is the expectation that God will send a unique king, associated with the Davidic dynasty, who will bring God’s blessing to the nations of the world. Significantly, he will sacrifice his life to atone for the sins of others. Beginning in the book of Genesis, God intimates that…
  • The Names of God | Daniel J. Ebert IV
    Divine names in the Bible are integral to God’s self-revelation. They are best studied along the Bible’s storyline using appropriate interpretive principles. God’s primary names, with many additional designations, are initially revealed in the Old Testament. The Bible also makes explicit statements about God’s names; this is particularly true of His personal name YHWH (Yahweh),…
  • The Nature of Sin | Christopher Morgan
    Sin is the failure to keep God’s law and to uphold his righteousness, thus failing to glorify the Lord fully. While there are many different manifestations that sin can take, they are all rooted in the initial disobedience of Adam and Eve in the Garden. All those who have been born afterwards, other than Jesus…
  • The Obedience and Sinlessness of Christ | Micah McCormick
    Jesus Christ came as the incarnated divine Son to live a human life of perfect obedience and submission. While we are unable to live a life without sin, Jesus was our representative and lived a perfect life on our behalf, a life attested to throughout the Bible. This obedient life fulfilled the expectations of the…
  • The Omnipotence, Omniscience, and Omnipresence of God | John M. Frame
    The three “omni” attributes of God characterize him as all-powerful, all-knowing, and everywhere present. Each of these involves the other two, and each provides a perspective on the all-embracing lordship of the true God. Omnipotence means that God is in total control of himself and his creation. Omniscience means that he is the ultimate criterion…
  • The Organization of the Church | Benjamin L. Merkle
    The New Testament presents a consistent, though perhaps not completely uniform, pattern of church leadership. One of the offices was variously called “elders,” “overseers,” or “pastors” (all three of these terms refer to the same group and were used interchangeably in the New Testament). These leaders were charged to lead, shepherd, teach, and equip the…
  • The Origin and Nature of the Church | Christopher Morgan
    The church is the new covenant people of God. The word church can be used to refer both to all believers, both living and dead (universal church), and to individual local gatherings of believers (local church). The church has its roots in the promises made to God’s people in the Old Testament, particularly that God…
  • The Priesthood of All Believers | J. V. Fesko
    In contrast to the beliefs of the medieval church, the Protestant doctrine of the priesthood of all believers holds that there is no longer a priestly class of people within God’s people, but that all believers share in Christ’s priestly status by virtue of their union with Christ. Although there was a select group of…
  • The Roles of Men and Women | Denny Burk
    God created human beings for his glory, and his good purposes for us include our personal and physical design as male and female. Being made in God’s image as male and female is not a matter of one’s own autonomous preferences. Rather, it is a part of God’s beautiful design and plan. Whereas egalitarianism tends…
  • The Spirituality of God | John M. Frame
    God’s spirituality refers not only to his immateriality and invisibility, but also to the fact that he works in the world with the power of the Holy Spirit. Spirit in Scripture refers to God as the third person of the Trinity, and to an attribute that he displays in all his works. As spirit, God is…
  • The Story and Message of the Bible | Stephen Wellum
    The Bible is comprised of many books and written by various authors over centuries, but as God’s Word it is a unified revelation unveiling a single message. It is crucial to understand what the Bible’s overall message is to interpret it properly and rightly apply it to our lives. This article explains what the central…
  • The Sufficiency of Scripture | Matthew Barrett
    The doctrine of the authority and inerrancy of Scripture is that, as a corollary of the inspiration of Scripture, the God-breathed Scriptures are wholly true in all things that they assert in the original autographs and therefore function with the authority of God’s own words. The sufficiency of Scripture is a doctrine challenged on multiple…
  • The Trinity and Christian Devotion | Ryan Mcgraw
    The Trinity is the foundation, content, and goal of Christian faith and devotion. In salvation, the Father sends the Son to save his people through the power of the Spirit. Likewise, Christians are reconciled to God the Father through the life, death, and resurrection of the Son through the power Spirit, who is our seal…
  • The Unity of the Church | Richard Lints
    The unity of the church is to be a reflection of the unity of the one God upon which the church is built. The ideal (unity) and the real (division) do not always match up in the life of the church. A biblical theology of unity reveals a richer and deeper understanding of unity than…
  • The Wrath of God | David Schrock
    God’s wrath, in perfect harmony with all of his divine attributes, is the holy action of retributive justice towards persons whose actions deserve eternal condemnation. Despite the disinterest of our secular age and many in the evangelical church, the wrath of God is a deeply biblical truth. It affirms God’s righteous displeasure with sin and…
  • Trinitarianism in the Early Church | Coleman Ford
    Evangelicals have much to consider when it comes to trinitarian reflection in the early church. First, the early church vigorously defended the Trinity from Scripture. Understanding the Trinity was not an exercise in proof-texting or philosophical sophistry, but rather deep Holy Spirit-driven whole-Bible reading. Their trinitarian consciousness was woven throughout their writing, their worship, and…
  • What Teens Need from Parents: A Counselor’s Perspective | Leia Joseph
    I’ve spent the last 17 years working as a music teacher and crisis counselor for teens. My students’ struggles include all the usual teen troubles (anxiety, social pressures, conflicts with parents, questions of identity and belonging) and several more serious ones (abuse, self-harm, mental illness, bullying). But, one over-arching theme that greatly helps or hinders…